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In the last five years a regular topic for discussion by the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) has related to the particular health risks for welders.

So what can happen to you if you regularly breathe in welding fume?


Welders are particularly prone to a lung infection that can lead to severe and sometimes fatal pneumonia.   Modern antibiotics usually stop the infection however in severe cases you could end up in hospital.  The HSE estimates that breathing metal fume at work leads to 40-50 welders each year being hospitalised. It can affect young welders as well as older people.  Exposure to welding fume in the past does not increase the chances of you getting pneumonia now. 

HSE Guidance - Pneumonia vaccination for employees exposed to welding and metal fume http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/eis44.pdf


Occupational asthma

In a recent review, [1]HSE found that the scientific evidence relating to welding fume and asthma was not strong enough for HSE to list welding fume as a confirmed cause of asthma. However, evidence shows that about 9 welders, each year, get asthma so badly that they are able to claim benefits (Industrial Injuries and Disablement Benefit). The HSE advises welders to protect themselves and follow the safe way of working that their employer should provide for them. Stainless steel fume has chromium oxide and Nickel Oxide in it and both these chemicals can cause asthma. For this reason, stainless steel welding fume is considered more harmful than mild steel fume.



Welding fume is internationally classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. Although primarily associated with stainless steel welding, this classification is not limited to stainless steel fume. It covers all welding fume. The UK system of classifying substances (Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2009[3]) does not consider by-products of a process. This means that welding fume is not currently assigned a hazard classification.


Metal fume fever

Many welders report flu like symptoms after welding. The effects are often worse at the start of the working week. Metal fume fever is usually linked to welding or hot work on galvanised metals. High exposures to mild steel weld fume can also cause this illness. Metal fume fever does not usually have any lasting ill effects. Don’t believe the stories about drinking milk before welding. It does not prevent you getting metal fume fever.


Irritation of throat and lungs

Gases and fine particles in welding fume can cause dryness of the throat, tickling, coughing or a tight chest. The effects tend to be short lived. Ozone is a particular cause of this when TIG welding stainless steels and aluminium. High exposures to nitrous oxides (generated during most arc welding operations) can also cause this health effect. Extreme exposure to ozone can cause pulmonary oedema (fluid on the lungs).


Temporary reduced lung function

Overall lung capacity and the ease at which you can breathe out (peak flow) are affected by prolonged exposure to welding fume. The effects tend to get worse through the working week but gradually improve when not exposed (eg over the weekend).

It is important to encourage Welders to report respiratory or breathing health concerns to their manager and seek medical advice if it continues for a prolonged period of time.


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